Making Bliny

1999 > Russia

My favorite Russian food!

February 19, 1999 Reuters, via Johnson’s Russia List

Pagan pancake fest readies Russia for Lent

By Peter Henderson

MOSCOW – One is a blin, two are bliny and any of the famous pancakes cooked
by a real Russian grandmother are delicious. That becomes clear to millions
of Russians this week during pagan celebrations marking the end of winter,
which the Orthodox Church has accommodated as a week of feasting before Lent.
The winter snow is unlikely to melt for some weeks in many parts of Russia,
but the celebrations mean seven days of walks through the snow, visiting
relatives and gobbling piles of thin pancakes, usually made by the family’s
grandmother, or babushka.

Bliny are Russian pancakes with a slightly sour taste and the thickness of
a few playing cards, accompanied by caviar or indeed almost any other filling
on hand, from jam to sour cream and salmon. The light brown bliny are shaped
like small suns, accounting for their central role in pre-Christian festivals
of the end of winter, when the returning sun brightens the sky.


Christianity came to Russia near the end of the first Christian millennium,
long after Slav peasants began working the land. Paganism took hold in Russia
as early as the second century AD and Maslenitsa, a shortened form of the
Russian for ‘butter week,’ was first mentioned in the sixth century, said
Larisa Zhigaitsova, a Russian history teacher at Moscow State University.

Each of the seven days had a purpose and a name such as Flirting Day, when
couples wooed each other over a warm pancake, and Sweet Tooth, when
mothers-in-law invited daughters-in-law over for bliny, an invitation
reciprocated later in the week.

The week, which this year finishes on Sunday, ends with more bliny and the
ritual burning of a straw puppet symbolising winter, the ashes of which are
spread on the fields to assure fertility ahead of spring planting. Christian
missionaries facing such fun had a clever strategy to ween the Slavs from
paganism, Zhigaitsova said. ‘The Church knew that it could not completely
destroy those festivals, and so it made sure many Church holidays fell at
the same time as traditional holidays.’

Maslenitsa was traditionally celebrated at the end of March at the equinox,
when the day has finally become equal to the night and peasants could think
about spring planting. Now it falls during cheese week, a build-up to Lent’s
seven weeks of self-denial before Easter, said Viktor Malyukhin, a spokesman
for the Russian Orthodox Church. ‘Maslenitsa is a folk holiday which falls
at the same time on the holy calendar as cheese week, the last week before
Lent when you can eat butter, eggs, sour cream,’ he said. Coincidentally,
bliny are made of milk and eggs and are generally smeared liberally with
sour cream.


Russian popular culture owes a lot to the blin and its sidekick, butter.
‘You cannot spoil porridge with butter,’ a Russian cook might say, meaning
one cannot have too much of a good thing, while she slapped butter between
layers of a stack of bliny.

‘Akh, blin!’ another might cry, using a popular euphemism for a strong
and similar sounding curse, as she took a turn at the frying pan and watched
a lovely pancake degenerate into a half-cooked ball of dough. ‘The first
blin is always a mess,’ the cook might respond, as would any Russian urging
another who did not succeed at first to try, try again.

But the secret to a delicious blin is widely held to be beyond technique
as befits its cultural role. ‘Babushkas probably make better ones because
they put their souls into it. Contemporary chefs are more, well, superficial,’
said Tatyana Kalashnikova, the 45-year-old cook at St Petersburg’s Literaturnoe
Kafe (Literary Cafe) Alexander Pushkin, Russia’s national poet, reportedly
made his last stop at the cafe before going to a fatal duel in 1837.

Kalashnikova’s bliny have the slightly chewy texture and satisfying heft
one might want for a last meal, though at the time Russia’s Western-oriented
capital, St Petersburg, and the cafe itself, probably snubbed the humble
Russian blin.


Real old fashioned bliny are made with buckwheat flour, which gives the pancakes
a zip, Kalashnikova said. ‘Blini from buckwheat flour are darker — wheat
and buckwheat are completely different cereals. A blin from buckwheat is
a more expressive blin, more piquant.’ She uses buckwheat during Maslenitsa
but admits to using, and preferring, regular flour the rest of the year.

Here is how she prepares for the crowds:

‘The process — we take warm milk, then sift some flour. We dissolve sugar
and salt to taste in the warm milk, add an egg, yeast, then mix in the flour
and put aside to rise about 30 minutes. When it has risen, we start making
bliny.’ A half litre of milk (two cups), 350 grams of flour (12 ounces or
1-3/4 cups) and one egg make 20 bliny, enough for a hungry family. There
should be about 1/2 teaspoon each of sugar and salt. Some cooks separate
the eggs and fold beaten egg whites in at the end.

‘Cook in a very hot pan — we have a special frying pan for bliny and nothing
else, so that the bliny are easy to take out of the pan,’ Kalashnikova says.
Oil the pan before pouring in batter, swirling it a bit to get a round shape
six to eight inches across. Babushkas oil the pan by dipping half a peeled
potato, stuck on the end of a fork, into some oil and then rubbing it in
the pan. Flip the blin when bubbles rise through the batter, as it turns
light brown and becomes easy to separate from the pan.

Stack on a plate and with butter between layers so they do not stick together.
‘On the side we serve (smoked) fish, caviar, honey, sour cream, jam, butter
— whatever you want,’ Kalashnikova said.